Sonic the Hedgehog (ソニック・ザ・ヘッジホッグ Sonikku za Hejjihoggu?) is a 2D platform video game developed by Sonic Team and published by Sega for the Sega Mega Drive. Featuring Sega's new mascot, the titular Sonic the Hedgehog, this game served as the launch title for the famous video game franchise known as the Sonic the Hedgehog series.
The game was originally released for the Sega Mega Drive in North America and Europe on 23 June 1991, with a Japanese Mega Drive release following a month later on 26, July. Advertising its fast gameplay based on Sonic's extraordinary speed, the concept of a high-speed platform game was unique for its time and solidified the style of gameplay the series would be best known for. Due to the Mega Drive's Motorola 68000 processor, the power of the console would allow for faster gameplay (dubbed by some as "blast processing"), and impressive 16-bit graphics, making it much more powerful than Sega's preceding Master System.
The game was well praised by critics and was a massive commercial success, which gave the Mega Drive, and by extent Sega, a huge boost in popularity, enough so that Sega could directly compete with Nintendo, who soon followed up with the release of their Super Nintendo Entertainment System. This would result in what would be the first counterattack in a long company rivalry that lasted throughout the 90s. In recent years, the game has been ported numerous times on many other consoles, with some ports adding newer features to the original game.
- 1 Plot
- 2 Gameplay
- 3 Characters
- 4 Zones
- 5 Achievements
- 6 Cheat codes
- 7 Development
- 8 Re-releases
- 9 Adaptations
- 10 Reception
- 11 Trivia
- 12 Videos
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The story begins on South Island. This island is known for being a treasure trove of ruins and gems. Amongst these gems are the "Chaos Emeralds", six gemstones with enough power to bring energy to all living beings, or power nuclear and laser weapons through science and technology. However, nobody really knows how to obtain these gems. This is because South Island is a moving island, with the Chaos Emeralds existing within natural distortions on the island.
One day, danger comes upon South Island as Dr. Ivo Robotnik and his henchmen land on it. Cranky over how his longtime nemesis, Sonic the Hedgehog, always foils his plans for world domination, the evil genius scientist is once again up to his evil ways, intending to crush Sonic with the power of science. Soon after his arrival, the doctor builds a huge fortress on the corner of the island and begins to develop on it. He also begins hunting the Chaos Emeralds in order to harness their incredible power, swearing that he will find them even if he has to dig up the entire island.
Upon learning of Robotnik's ambitions through rumors, Sonic rushes to South Island to stop the doctor. However, he notices that, compared to his past encounters with Robotnik, something is different. He soon after finds Robotnik, who gloats that he has caught all the local Animals and turned them into his mindless Badnik servants. Unfazed by Robotnik's taunt, Sonic travels through the various Zones on South Island, freeing the Animals and defeating Robotnik and his various contraptions along the way while hunting for the Chaos Emeralds.
Eventually, Sonic arrives in Scrap Brain Zone. Upon finding Robotnik inside, the doctor presses a Switch that sends Sonic into the ruins underneath the base. Making his way back into Robotnik's fortress, Sonic eventually enters a trap-ridden room with Robotnik in it. After Sonic destroys the room, a defenseless Robotnik tries to escape in his Egg Mobile, but Sonic lands a final hit on the vehicle, causing Robotnik to slowly fall to a pit. After that, the game's ending will depend on the player's process:
- If the player did not manage to collect all six Chaos Emeralds, Sonic will run through a Green Hill Zone filled with the rescued Animals. He will then jump to the screen and pose while the text "SONIC THE HEDGEHOG" appears to his left. After the credits, Robotnik will be shown on a black screen juggling the unobtained Chaos Emeralds while the text "TRY AGAIN" appears underneath him.
- If the player manages to collect all six Chaos Emeralds, Sonic will run through Green Hill Zone. He will then release the Chaos Emeralds, which will disappear after filling the entire Zone with flowers. After being shocked by this for a split second, Sonic will then jump towards the screen in the same way as in the bad ending. After the credits, an infuriated Robotnik will be shown jumping on the text "END".
Sonic the Hedgehog is a 2D side-scrolling platform video game. The only playable character here is Sonic the Hedgehog. The main goal of the game is to get through a series of Acts for different Zones in less than ten minutes. When passing through each Act, the player will be contending with different types of enemies called "Badniks" and various terrains that have different gimmicks and obstacles along them. The level designs all vary, each with different types of gimmicks and layouts that may differ between Zones. Along the way, the player can earn points by collecting items and defeating Badniks. In order to conclude the first two Acts of a Zone, the player has to pass a Goal Plate at the end of said Acts. To complete the final Act of most Zones on the other hand, the player typically has to open a Capsule at the end of the Act, after a boss fight. Also upon completing an Act, the player's overall score will be tallied, with bonus points being granted based on their performance.
Sonic's most basic ability is running, which can reach impressive speeds when momentum is build up, allowing him to run through loops or up ramps and launch himself high up into the air. For offensive maneuvers, Sonic has a full-body rolling maneuver called Super Sonic Spin Attack and a spinning jump called the Super Sonic Spin Jump. These techniques allow him to destroy breakable objects and enemies.
In Sonic the Hedgehog, the gameplay operates on a life system, while Sonic takes damage when touching a Badnik or hazard, or getting attacked by a boss or Badnik. Throughout the Acts however, Rings lie scattered about, which Sonic can pick up by simply touching them. Rings give an extra life after collecting 100 or 200 of them, grant points and protect the player from taking damage. If Sonic takes damage, they will drop all their Rings, though some can be recollected before they disappear. Taking damage without any Rings will cost the player a life. Sonic will also lose a life, regardless of the Rings he holds, if his spends too long underwater without replenishing his air supply (air underwater lasts for thirty seconds), falls into a bottomless pit, gets smashed to the ground by a crusher, or runs out of time. Losing a life makes the player start from the last Lamppost they touched, or from the beginning of the Act if they have not passed any Lampposts. If a character loses a try when the number of tries remaining is zero, the game will end. Also scattered throughout each Act are Video Monitors which contain various power-ups beneficial to Sonic's performance.
if the player has at least fifty Rings on hand at the end of the first or second Act of a Zone, they will be able to enter one of six Special Stages through a Giant Ring that appears above the Goal Plate. Once the player has cleared all six Special Stages, the Giant Rings will no longer appear. If Sonic does not jump in before the Goal Plate stops spinning, he will automatically run off of the screen, preventing the player from entering the Special Stage. At the end of each Act, the player can also jump through the air during the score tallying to find invisible Secret Bonuses that are added to the score.
Beside the game's main goal, the player can also collect the Chaos Emeralds, which are earned by completing the different Special Stages. Collecting all six Emeralds and completing the Final Zone will unlock the game's good cinematic ending.
|Walk||Push left or right on the D-pad to initiate Sonic's movement in either direction. As the player holds the button down, Sonic gains speed.|
|Run||Begin walking and hold down the button to make Sonic gain speed. After a few seconds, he'll break into a run.|
|Screech halt||While running, quickly press and hold the opposite direction on the D-pad to make Sonic screech to a halt. He'll skid for a short distance, based on how fast he was moving.|
|Look up||While standing still, press up on the D-pad to make Sonic gaze to the sky. As the player holds up, the camera pans upward, giving player a view of Sonic's overhead surroundings.|
|Crouch||While standing still, press down on the D-pad to make Sonic duck down. As the player holds down, the camera pans downward, giving player a view of the stage beneath where Sonic stands.|
|Super Sonic Spin Attack||Often called the Spin Attack or just the roll in later games, pressing down on the D-pad while moving will make Sonic curl into a rolling attack. He'll remain in this position until the player jumps or slows down. The speed of Sonic's movement while in spin mode is based on how fast the player was moving when they initiated the Spin Attack.|
|Super Sonic Spin Jump||Renamed the Spin Jump in later games, pressing an action button at any time will make Sonic leap into the air with a rolling attack. The height of the jump is proportional to how long the player held the button down.|
|Push||Certain blocks can be pushed by running up against them. Continue holding the D-pad against the offending cube to have Sonic push it along the ground. This sprite will also be shown if the player attempts this with an object that can't be pushed that doesn't harm them.|
- Air Bubble (first appearance)
- Chaos Emerald (first appearance)
- Giant Ring (first appearance)
- Movable box (first appearance)
- Ring (first appearance)
- Video Monitor (first appearance)
Gimmicks and obstacles
- Dr. Ivo Robotnik (first appearance)
- Animals (first appearance)
- Egg Wrecker (Green Hill Zone)
- Egg Scorcher (Marble Zone)
- Egg Stinger (Spring Yard Zone)
- Labyrinth Zone boss (Labyrinth Zone)
- Egg Spiker (Star Light Zone)
- Egg Crusher (Final Zone)
Sonic the Hedgehog has seven Zones. The first six Zones contain three full-length Acts, with the third one having a battle against a boss, and the final one only consists of the final boss machine.
- Green Hill Zone
- Marble Zone
- Spring Yard Zone
- Labyrinth Zone
- Star Light Zone
- Scrap Brain Zone
- Final Zone
If Sonic finishes the first or second Act of any of the first five zones with at least fifty Rings, a large, spinning ring will appear. If he jumps into it, he will warp into a "Special Stage", which conceals one of the six Chaos Emeralds. In these stages, Sonic, in ball form, falls through a series of rotating mazes.
If he can avoid the "GOAL" spheres along parts of the stage's walls (presumably labeled "GOAL" to entice the player into exiting the Special Stage), he will eventually find the Chaos Emerald encased in colored diamonds; touching the diamonds repeatedly will cause them to change color from blue, to green, to yellow, to pink and ultimately disappear, allowing access to the Emerald. The stage will end when Sonic either touches the Emerald or hits a "GOAL" sign. If fifty Rings are collected before Sonic makes contact with a "GOAL" sphere or gets the Chaos Emerald, then a 'Continue' will be awarded to the player, indicated by a brief, distinct change in melody. Super Sonic does not appear in Sonic the Hedgehog because the seventh Chaos Emerald was not yet introduced.
There are a total of ten opportunities to get Chaos Emeralds, meaning the player can fail a Special Stage up to four times if all six Emeralds are to be collected before the end of the game. Scrap Brain Zone will not have a large ring at the end of both of its acts, even when finishing with fifty rings, despite the acts ending before it. If the player fails a stage, that stage is skipped and is returned to after attempting the sixth and final Special Stage.
It is stated in the North American and European manuals that a 1-Up item can be found in Special Stages, but they are not seen anywhere unless placed in the game's secret Debug Mode. It is possible, however, to earn extra lives by collecting a hundred rings in a single stage, indicated by the same sound used in the main zones.
|Clear Green||Clear Green Hill Zone.||Bronze||5|
|Star Light Zone||Get to Star Light Zone.||Bronze||5|
|Spring Yard Zone||Get to Spring Yard Zone.||Bronze||7|
|Labyrinth Zone||Get to Labyrinth Zone.||Bronze||8|
|Fast Green||Beat Green Hill Zone Act 1 in under 35 seconds.||Bronze||10|
|Chaos Emerald||Get one Chaos Emerald.||Silver||10|
|Centurion||Get 100 or more Rings.||Bronze||10|
|Fast Marble||Beat Marble Zone Act 1 in under 80 seconds.||Bronze||15|
|Win||Beat the game.||Silver||25|
|Fast Win||Beat the game in under 40 minutes.||Silver||30|
|Chaos Master||Get all the Chaos Emeralds.||Silver||35|
|Perfect Win||Beat the game without dying.||Gold||40|
- Level Select - At the title screen, press UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT, then hold A and press start.
- Debug Mode - At the title screen, press UP, C, DOWN, C, LEFT, C, RIGHT, C (or C, C, UP, DOWN, LEFT, RIGHT), start, then hold A until the game starts.
In April 1990, Sega requested a game capable of selling more than 1,000,000 copies; a character who could compete against Nintendo's popular Super Mario series, and a character to replace Alex Kidd as the company's mascot. Several character designs were submitted by its AM8 research and development department.
Various characters were proposed to star the game. These included a wolf, a bulldog, a robot, and a warrior character. Eventually, it was chosen to developed the game around a rabbit who would use its extendable ears to collect objects. While the concept seemed promising, it had to be scrapped due to it being too complex for the Mega Drive's hardware. The team narrowed its search to animals that could roll into a ball, their idea for an attacking move, and considered armadillios and hedgehogs. The hedgehog character, designed by Naoto Ohshima, prevailed. Said character was meant to be a spiky teal hedgehog codenamed "Mister Hedgehog" (ミスターハリネズミ Misutā Harinezumi?), later renamed Sonic the Hedgehog. Sonic's color was based on the Sega logo, his shoe buckles based on Michael Jackson, his shoe color based on Santa Claus, and his personality was inspired by then-future president of the United States Bill Clinton's "get it done" attitude, who Ōhshima felt embodied a modern sensibility of wanting to get things done right away, righting wrongs as they presented themselves instead of letting them linger. According to Yuji Naka, Sonic's color was also meant to symbolize peace, trust, and coolness (which are the attributes of Sonic's character). His trademark speed was based on Super Mario Bros.' World 1-1, with Sonic creator Yuji Naka stating in issue 260 of Nintendo Power that "[he] always tried to get through the level as fast as [he] could". Sonic was created without the ability to swim because of a mistaken assumption by Yuji Naka that all hedgehogs could not do so. An earlier proposed protagonist, a moustached man in pajamas, was modified to become Dr. Eggman, the main antagonist of the game.
A group of fifteen people started working on Sonic the Hedgehog and renamed themselves Sonic Team. The game's soundtrack was composed by Masato Nakamura of the band Dreams Come True. Sega sponsored the group's "Wonder 3" tour, painting Sonic on the tour bus, distributing pamphlets advertising the game, and having footage of the game broadcast above stage prior to its release. The original concepts gave Sonic fangs and put him in a band with a human girlfriend named Madonna. However, a team from Sega of America, led by Madeline Schroeder, "softened" the character up for an American audience by removing these elements. This sparked a heated issue with Sonic Team. Naka later admitted that it was probably for the best.
|Sega Mega Drive||Included in Sonic Compilation (later released as Sonic Classics) on the Sega Mega Drive.|
|Sega Mega Drive||Re-released on the Sega Mega Drive in a new package under a "Sega Classics" logo.|
|Sega Mega Drive||Mega 6 Volume 3 was a Sega Mega Drive cartridge consisting of six games, one of which was Sonic the Hedgehog.|
|Sega Mega Drive||6-Pak was a Sega Mega Drive cartridge consisting of six games, one of which was Sonic the Hedgehog.|
|Arcade||This was one of the games adapted for release in arcades using MegaPlay and MegaTech technology in 1993. The game is almost identical to the console version except Labyrinth Zone and Scrap Brain Zone Act 3 have been removed.|
|Sega Saturn||Playable in Sonic Jam for the Sega Saturn console. A new Spin Dash option was added, which also fixes the so-called "Spike Bug".|
|Dreamcast||Included in SEGA Smash Pack for the Dreamcast console.|
|PlayStation 2 / PSP||SEGA Genesis Collection for PlayStation 2 and PlayStation Portable includes this game.|
|GameCube||Available in Sonic Mega Collection for the GameCube.|
|PlayStation 2 / PC / Xbox||Available in Sonic Mega Collection Plus for the PlayStation 2, PC and Xbox.|
|Xbox||Available in Sonic Mega Collection Plus / Super Monkey Ball Deluxe 2 in 1 combo pack for the Xbox.|
|GameCube / PlayStation 2||Sonic Gems Collection allows you to play the final boss of this game in the museum mode. If you beat the Final Zone under the time limit, you can continue on to the beginning of the game until your time runs out.|
In 2005 this game was ported as a mobile phone game and offered on the Sonic Cafe service in Japan.
An emulated version of the game with the title Sonic the Hedgehog Mobile was released for download on Mobile phones in 2005, under the Sega Mobile banner. However, the game is split into two parts. Part 1 contains the first 3 zones, while Part 2 contains the last three.
|Play TV Legends||Sega Mega Drive Collection Vol. 1 is a game console which is part of the Play TV Legends plug-and-play series. It has 6 built-in games that can be played when the console is connected to the TV. The title game is Sonic the Hedgehog. This was released in Europe and the US in 2005.|
|Play TV Legends||Included in Super Sonic Gold, a console that has 4 built in games, but no cartridge slot. Released in the US and Europe in 2005.|
|Game Boy Advance||
Released on the Game Boy Advance under the title Sonic the Hedgehog Genesis. While it added Spin Dash and save features, the port is considered of extremely poor quality due to incompetent programming.
iTunes released a "Click Wheel Game" version of the game for download under the Sega Mobile banner. It was compatible with the iPod Nano (3rd, 4th, 5th Generation) and iPod classic (5th Generation). Not to be confused with the iOS port.
|iOS||Sonic the Hedgehog was ported to iOS in May 2009. This version's distribution has been discontinued, replaced by an entirely different port using the Retro Engine (see below).|
|Wii||Available for Download on the Wii's Virtual Console.|
|Xbox 360||Available for Download on the Xbox 360's Xbox Live Arcade service. Released on 7 November 2007.|
|Browser||Made available for the PlaySEGA browser game service in 2008.|
|PlayStation 3 / Xbox 360||Included in a compilation disk titled Sonic's Ultimate Genesis Collection for the PlayStation 3 and Xbox 360.|
|PC||Sonic PC Collection is a compilation released in New Zealand and Australia in 2009. This compilation includes Sonic Mega Collection Plus which includes Sonic the Hedgehog.|
|Nintendo DS||Included in a compilation titled Sonic Classic Collection for the Nintendo DS.|
|PC||Included in Sega Mega Drive Classic Collection - Volume 1 which entails 10 classic Sega titles.|
Available for Download on the PlayStation 3's PlayStation Network service. Available to PlayStation Plus Members (for Free) from 1 March 2011 to 5 April 2011. Available to Regular Users 29 March 2011.
|Android (Kyocera Echo only)||
Available for Download on Kyocera Echo via G-Gee by Gmo. It was available for free (including other games by G-Gee and SEGA's Super Monkey Ball) for a short period of time.
|Xbox 360 / PlayStation 3||
In the console versions of Sonic Generations, this game is playable from the hub world. It is unlockable after a Genesis controller is purchased from the Skill Shop. This version keeps track of time (similar to the release of Sonic Jam). In addition, a new bonus feature can be unlocked via the Skill Shop - infinite continues. The Xbox 360 version lacks the level select code, but the PlayStation 3 version has it intact. It is removed from the PC version in favor of slightly enriching the core game experience.
As a celebration of the Mega Drive's 25th anniversary in Japan, Sega released another port for Nintendo 3DS titled 3D Sonic the Hedgehog, which is part of series of Mega Drive games re-released to take advantage of 3D. The port also features Spin Dash as an optional move, Stage Select feature, input settings, sound settings, the option to toggle the original revisions, and separate display settings with stereoscopic sense to create a 3D experience. It is was released in Japan on 15 May 2013, and was later released in North America and PAL Regions on December 5, 2013.
|Nintendo 3DS||Sonic the Hedgehog is one of the Sega games included in a compilation of classic games titled Sega 3D Classics Collection. While it is titled 3D Sonic the Hedgehog, this compilation title takes advantage of stereoscopic 3D to create a 3D experience.|
Developed by Christian Whitehead and Headcannon, this remastered edition of the original Sonic the Hedgehog includes several features including an optional Spin Dash, Miles "Tails" Prower and Knuckles the Echidna being playable characters and an expanded Level Select and Debug Mode.
Re-released as part of the SEGA AGES line for the Nintendo Switch, Sonic the Hedgehog includes some features such as the Spin Dash and Drop Dash from Sonic Mania and two modes: Ring Keep Mode and Time Attack. It was released on September 20, 2018.
|Tesla Arcade||On 12 December 2021, Tesla owner and CEO Elon Musk revealed that Sonic the Hedgehog is coming to Tesla infotainment systems. The inclusion of the game is part of the partnership between Sega and Tesla, as the game will be available in all Tesla models around the world via the built-in display screen in conjunction with a handheld controller connected through the car's USB ports. The port was released on 22 December 2021 in limited form during the Tesla’s 2021 holiday update.|
|Xbox Series X and Series S, PlayStation 5, Nintendo Switch, PC||The game was included in the upcoming compilation game Sonic Origins, which will be released to celebrate the Sonic series' 30th anniversary.|
Numerous adaptations and references to Sonic the Hedgehog have been made in several spin-offs series for the Sonic the Hedgehog series.
It has been stated that the events of the game have taken place in the Sonic the Comic series published by Fleetway Editions. While no direct adaptation was made, the events of the game were referenced in Sonic the Comic #26, "Kintobor spelled backwards is...".
An adaptation of Sonic the Hedgehog was later made in the Sonic X comic series published by Archie Comics in Sonic X #10-#11, as part of the "No Thanks for the Memories!" storyline. Unlike in the original game however, this adaptation takes place within a virtual world. Archie Comics later made another adaptation of Sonic the Hedgehog as part of their "Genesis" arc, in Sonic the Hedgehog #226-#227. It has also been stated that the events of the game have taken place within the Post-Super Genesis Wave timeline. An adaptation of the game's events in that timeline was later made in Sonic the Hedgehog #288 as the first part of the "Genesis of a Hero" storyline.
The original Sonic the Hedgehog was very well received by critics, scoring 86% from GameRankings. The game was an instant success that allowed Sega to wrap their video game business around and have a platformer to compete with Nintendo's Super Mario franchise. The gameplay, audio and graphics were praised by reviewers.
IGN reviewer Lucas M. Thomas rated Sonic the Hedgehog an 8/10, praising the simple but fast gameplay, the soundtrack and commended that "few people realize how difficult it was to create Sonic's graphics engine, which allowed for the incredible rate of speed the game's known for. The technical achievement impressed back in '91, and still does so today." Gamespot reviewer Greg Kasavin gave the game a 7.3/10, praising the great soundtrack and memorable sound effects, the fast-paced, responsive platformer action and cute, colorful graphics [that] have a good deal of charm and personality although he felt that the later levels can get frustrating tough, requiring meticulous memorization.
- The Japanese release added additional storyline details, as the existing plot was virtually a basic outline. The purpose of the Chaos Emeralds is greatly expanded upon, which is elaborated in later games. It is explained that Dr. Robotnik was specifically searching for them on the island due to their incredible energy according to legend. The manual also states that there has already been some unknown animosity between Sonic and Robotnik in the past (which, on the other hand, is not backed up in later games). It also lists the setting as South Island, which is established in later games as well - in the English manual, the setting was originally unnamed.
- There are two versions of the game. This revision is common in Japan, but contrary to popular belief it was released worldwide in smaller quantities. This update makes some very minor changes to the game's programming, as well as adds some visual effects such as scrolling clouds in Green Hill Zone or water ripples in Labyrinth Zone. It also corrects the Zone order on the level select. This version of the game is used in most subsequent releases. In addition, the scrolling clouds return in most appearances of Green Hill Zone.
- Rui Sousa holds the high score for Sonic the Hedgehog: 1,559,180. He achieved this on 21 March 2015.
- There was a sound test that was originally supposed to be in this game but was scrapped. But one character in this sound test appeared in future games (Vector) while the others appear in the Archie Comics as part of Mina Mongoose's band.
- A variant of this game's Special Stage also appeared in Sonic the Hedgehog 4: Episode I.
- There were only six Chaos Emeralds in this game. A seventh emerald was introduced in Sonic the Hedgehog 2.
- The game's 2013 re-release adds a seventh emerald, making Super Forms possible.
- In each version of the game's box art, Sonic is making the same pose.
- Out of the main series classic Sonic games (including both episodes of Sonic the Hedgehog 4 and Sonic Mania), this is the only game whose final boss doesn't take place in space.
- Masato Nakamura did say in an interview that when he was composing the music for this game, he thought the game as a film to compose the music.
- This is one of the games to be represented in Sonic Generations. Green Hill reappears as the first stage of the Classic Era in both the home and portable versions.
- This game's theme music would later be remixed and used as the theme for Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and Sonic Generations.
- Also, the opening and ending of this game's ending theme were remixed and used for the opening and ending theme for Sonic Generations.
- Strangely, the PlayStation Network port of the game was rated E10+ by the ESRB. However, that has been changed to an E rating in 2013.
- In the G4 special Top 100 Video Games of All Time, the game was ranked at #50.
- The game was meant to move at an even faster pace, but that idea was cut from the final version, as Yuji Naka suffered motion sickness while playtesting it.
- The game was listed in the book 1001 Video Games You Must Play Before You Die. In addition, Sonic the Hedgehog 2 and Sonic Adventure were also listed.
- This is one of the few Sonic games that when it crashes, it has something debug-related happen. In this game's case, sometimes when a crash happens, an error code comes on the screen.
- The title icon for this game, and several corresponding games, resembles the logo for the restaurant chain Steak 'n Shake.
- Dobson, Jason (2006-06-23). Sonic The Hedgehog Celebrates 15th Anniversary. Gamasutra. Think Services. Retrieved on 2009-08-27.
- Mean Machines #10 (Review: Sonic the Hedgehog & Sonic Clampdown)
- Soon, Teslas Will Be Able To Play Sonic 1 For Some Reason. The Sonic Stadium (14 December 2021). Retrieved on 14 December 2021.
- Sonic the Hedgehog (Sega Mega Drive) Japanese instruction manual, pgs. 11-12.
- Sonic the Hedgehog (Sega Mega Drive), Japanese instruction manual, pgs. 13-14.
- Sega Visions Interview with Yuji Naka (October 1992). Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-06-28.
- Yuji Naka on Twitter (Japanese). Twitter (24 January 2021). Archived from the original on 24 January 2021. "悔しいのでもう一度挑戦しましたがもっと判らなかった感じです。「セガの看板キャラクターであるソニック。世に出る前に彼に付けられていた名前を選べ」と言う問題が判りませんでした。作った人なのにね
- Brandon Sheffield. Out of the Blue: Naoto Ohshima Speaks. Gamasutra. Retrieved on 2009-12-13.
- Yahoo Playback. Yahoo Playback #94. Yahoo, Inc.. Archived from the original on December 15, 2009. Retrieved on 2009-12-13.
- Brian Ashcraft. Sonic's Shoes Inspired by Michael Jackson. Kotaku. Retrieved on 2009-12-13.
- Revealed: Why Sonic can't swim (February 2009). Retrieved on 2009-02-27.
- Masato Nakamura interview (flash). Sonic Central. Archived from the original on December 23, 2008. Retrieved on 2006-02-07.
- Richard, Isaiah (12 December 2021). Tesla EVs to Feature ‘Sonic, the Hedgehog’ on Infotainment Says Elon Musk, After Mocking Sen. Sanders. Tech Times. Retrieved on 14 December 2021.
- You can play the Hedgehog in Teslas. Game-News24 (13 December 2021). Retrieved on 14 December 2021.
- Friscia, John (14 December 2021). Sonic the Hedgehog 1 is coming to Tesla cars via Sega partnership. Nintendo Enthusiast. Retrieved on 14 December 2021.
- Sarah Lee-Jones (22 December 2021). First Look: Sonic the Hedgehog in Tesla Arcade. Tesla North. Archived from the original on 23 December 2021. Retrieved on 27 December 2021.
- Sonic the Hedgehog for Genesis. Archived from the original on March 9, 2009. Retrieved on 23 December 2014.
- Corbie Dillard (20 November 2006). Sonic the Hedgehog (Wii Virtual Console/Mega Drive) Review. Retrieved on 23 December 2014.
- Lucas M. Thomas (26 January 2007). Sonic the Hedgehog VC Review. Retrieved on 23 December 2014.
- Greg Casavin (19 November 2006). Sonic the Hedgehog Review. Retrieved on 23 December 2014.