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The comet itself appears to be alive or techno-organic in nature, most notably when it was teleported to earth and seemed to take on a life of its own and dig into the surface. On the inside, it is almost like being in the body of a living organism. There are pulsating growths and what appear to be tentacles, organs, and throat-like halls. Organic sounds can be heard from within. For example, in the Japanese version of the game, when the tentacles are destroyed, a roaring similar to the Biolizard's can be heard. There is a viscous substance in the comet that only Death Leeches and worms can exist in. Even Black Doom continuously warns Shadow that "that toxic substance is fatal". The tentacle-like projections also appear to exist in the substance.
The last time the Black Comet passed by earth, Black Doom made a pact with Gerald Robotnik in order to create the Ultimate Lifeform, Shadow the Hedgehog. Black Doom would provide the genetic material Gerald need to create Shadow, and Shadow would in turn help Black Doom in his quest to collect the seven Chaos Emeralds. Gerald, however, did not trust Black Doom and suspected his plot to obtain the Emeralds. As such, Gerald designed the Eclipse Cannon to destroy the Black Comet when it returned, before he was incarcerated on Prison Island by G.U.N..
Shadow the Hedgehog
Fifty years later, during Shadow the Hedgehog, the Black Comet once again approached earth, and the Black Arms began the final phase of their mission to collect the seven Chaos Emeralds and enslave the humans. Since the Black Comet did not have enough speed to make it to earth's surface on its own, Black Doom took advantage of Shadow's amnesia, tricking him into finding the seven Chaos Emeralds.
Once Shadow brought the Emeralds to Black Doom, the alien overlord used Chaos Control to teleport the Black Comet down to earth, where it released a gas that coated the planet and began paralyzing the inhabitants. As Sonic, his friends, and Eggman remained frozen, ready to be eaten by a horde of Death Leeches, Black Doom explained how the Black Arms would keep them and the humans as livestock, using them as slaves and a food source. However, Black Doom's plans were foiled when Shadow used the Emeralds to turn into Super Shadow and destroyed Black Doom, then teleported the Black Comet back into space where he fired the Eclipse Cannon at it, destroying it and all of the Black Arms inside.
In the Japanese version of Shadow the Hedgehog, it is stated the Black Comet's nerve gas is emitted from the comet regularly. However, it is only due to a chemical reaction with the earth's atmosphere that it becomes a toxic nerve gas.